Essential oils and major compounds of Hedychium coronarium Koenig (Zingiberaceae) against pathogenic yeast of Candida and Cryptococcus genus

Fernanda Patricia Gullo, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins, Francisco Ribeiro Camargo, Sarah Valentine Henrich, Raquel Regina Duarte Moreira

Abstract


Among the major causative agents of invasive fungal infections stands out the opportunistic yeasts of Candida and Cryptococcus. Regarding the problem of the high incidence of infections by these agents and the difculty of treating the low stockpile of antifungal drugs and the high toxicity of most therapies, the search for new antifungal compounds has been highlighted in recent decades. Hedychium coronarium, popularly known as “lírio-do-brejo” or “gengibre-branco” features several previously reported biological activities, including antimicrobial activity. Compound 1.8-cineole is the major compound in essential oil extracted from roots of H. coronarium, while caryophyllene oxide presents itself as the major in essential oil extracted from leaves of this plant. Our data show strong antifungal activity of compounds, against species of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, with minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration equal to 0.2 % (v/v) for essential oil extracted from roots, while the essential oil extracted from leaves showed no activity against yeasts. The caryophyllene oxide showed higher antifungal activity for Cryptococcus spp. Thus, our results showed that the essential oil of rhizome is a promising antifungal agent against pathogenic yeasts.


Keywords: Candida spp. Cryptococcus spp. Hedychium coronarium, 1.8-cineole, caryophyllene oxide.


RESUMO


Óleos essenciais e compostos majoritários de Hedychium coronarium Koenig (Zingiberaceae) contra leveduras patogênicas dos gêneros Candida e Cryptococcus


Candida spp e Cryptococcus spp estão classifcadas entre os maiores causadores de infecções fúngicas invasivas em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Diante a alta incidência destas infecções por estes agentes e a difculdade do sucesso no tratamento, decorrente do baixo arsenal de fármacos antifúngicos e da alta toxicidade presente na maioria dos esquemas terapêuticos, a busca por novos compostos antifúngicos tem sido alvo de diversos estudos nas últimas décadas. Hedychium coronarium, popularmente conhecido como “lírio-do-brejo” ou “gengibre-branco”, apresenta diversas atividades biológicas já descritas, entre elas a atividade antimicrobiana. O composto 1.8-Cineol é o composto majoritário presente no óleo essencial extraído de raízes de H. coronarium e o composto óxido de cariofleno é o composto majoritário extraído das folhas desta planta. Nossos resultados mostram que os compostos extraídos de H. coronarium apresentam forte atividade contra Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gattii, com valores de concentração inibitória minima e concentração fungicida minima igual a 0,2 % (v/v) para o óleo essencial extraído das raízes, enquanto que o óleo essencial extraído das folhas, não mostrou atividade contras as leveduras. O composto óxido de cariofleno mostrou maior atividade antifúngica para Crytopcoccus spp. Assim, nossos dados mostraram que o óleo essencial extraído das raízes de H. coronarium, é um agente antifúngico promissor contra leveduras patogênicas.


Palavras-chave: Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Hedychium coronarium, 1.8-cineole, caryophyllene oxide


Keywords


Candida spp.; Cryptococcus spp.; Essential oil; Hedychium coronarium

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