Leafy Vegetables Free Of Coliforms And Parasites After Washing In Chlorine Treated Water

Camila Luchesi, Bibiana Paula Dambrós, Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski, Monica Frighetto, César Milton Baratto

Abstract


The production and preparation of vegetables for consumption involve procedures that pose health risks to consumers. In this context the water plays an important role in the quality of minimally processed vegetables. We assessed the hygienic-sanitary quality of leafy vegetables and obtained data of interest to health surveillance agencies and public health. They were tested for the presence of total and faecal coliforms, and also parasitic protozoa and helminths. The vegetable samples were purchased in supermarkets of the Midwest of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We performed bacteriological analyses of wash water samples using chromogenic substrates to obtain the most probable number of the coliform group at 35 °C and Escherichia coli. We used Hoffman’s spontaneous sedimentation technique for the parasitological analysis in order to check the occurrence of heavy and light helminths eggs and protozoan cysts. The analyses indicated the presence of coliforms, nematodes and freeliving protozoa, except for the last wash. We concluded that the washing process using running water and no active chlorine was not efficient in reducing the load of microorganisms in the vegetables. Therefore, intensive educational programmes should be implemented by health authorities to encourage hygienic-sanitary practices and risk reduction of food-borne diseases. 

Keywords: Public Health. Vegetables. Parasitic nematodes. Faeces.

 

 


Keywords


Public Health. Vegetables. Parasitic nematodes. Faeces.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abougrain, A.K., Nahaisi, M.H., Madi, N.S., Saied, M.M. & Ghenghesh, K.S. 2009 Parasitological contamination in salad vegetables in Tripoli-Libya. Food Control 21, 760–762. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.11.005

Alves, A.S., Cunha Neto, A. & Rossignoli, P.A. 2013 Parasitos em alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa), de plantio convencional, comercializada em supermercados de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Rev Patol Trop 42, 217-229; available from: http://www.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/iptsp/article/viewFile/25529/14678. doi: 10.5216/rpt.v42i2.25529

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. AOAC. 2007 Inclusion of Colilert® as an approved method (991.15) for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms and E coli in water. EUA; available from: https://www.idexx.com/pdf/en_us/water/096223000L.pdf .

Baruffaldi, R. Penna, T.C.V., Machoshvili, I.A. & Abe, L.E. 1984 Tratamento químico de hortaliças poluídas. Rev. Saúde Pública 18, 225-234.; available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rsp/v18n3/04.pdf. doi:10.1590/S0034-89101984000300004.

Belinelo, V.J., Gouvêia, M.I., Coelho, M.P., Zamprogno, A.C., Fianco, B.A. & Oliveira, L.G.A. 2009 Enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de São Mateus, ES, Brasil. Arq. Ciênc. Saúde 13, 33-36; available from: http://revistas.unipar.br/saude/article/view/2794/2080

Berger, C.N., Sodha, S.V., Shaw, R.K., Griffin, P.M., Pink, D., Hand, P. et al. 2010 Fresh fruit and vegetables as vehicles for the transmission of human pathogens. Environmental Microbiology 12, 2385-2397. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02297.x

Beuchat, L.R., Farber, J.M., Garrett, E.H., Harris, L.J., Parish, M.E., Suslow, T et al. 2001 Standardization of a method to determine the efficacy of sanitizers in inactivating human pathogenic microorganisms on raw fruit and vegetables. J Food Protect 64,1079-84.

Brandl, M.T. & Amundson, R. 2008 Leaf Age as a Risk Factor in Contamination of Lettuce with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Appl Env Microbiol 74, 2298-2306; available from: http://aem.asm.org/content/74/8/2298.full.pdf+html. doi: 0.1128/AEM.02459-07.

Brasil. Anvisa. Ministério da Saúde. 1978 Resolução da Comissão Nacional de Normas e Padrões para Alimentos n° 12, de 24 de julho de 1978. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde; available from: http://www.anvisa.gov.br/anvisalegis/resol/12_78.pdf.

Duedu, K.O., Yarnie, E.A., Tetteh-Quarcoo, P.B., Attah, S.K., Donkor, E.S. & Ayeh-Kumi, P.F. 2014 A comparative survey of the prevalence of human parasites found in fresh vegetables sold in supermarkets and open-aired markets in Accra, Ghana. BMC Research Notes 7, 836, doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-836.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC/DPDx Team. 2014 [Electronic mail on the Internet]. Message to: Dambrós, B.P. (Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Brazil). 2014 Aug 19 [Information about morphology of clinically relevant species from images]. [cited 2014 Aug 19].

Cheeptham, N. & LAL, A. 2013 Use of EC-MUG media to Confirm Escherichia coli contamination in water samples protocol. ASM-American Society of Micobiology; available from: http://www.microbelibrary.org/component/resource/laboratory-test/3201-use-of-ec-mug-media-to-confirm-escherichia-coli-contamination-in-water-samples-protocol.

Espinosa-García, A.C., Díaz-Ávalos, C., Solano-Ortiz, R., Tapia-Palacios, M.A., Vázquez-Salvador, N., Espinosa-García, S., Sarmiento-Silva, R.E. & Mazari-Hiriart, M. 2014 Removal of bacteria, protozoa and viruses through a multiple-barrier household water disinfection system Journal of Water and Health 12, 94-104. doi:10.216/wh.2013.080

Forsythe, S.J. 2002 The microbiology of safe food, Blackwell Science, London.

Franco, B.D.G.M. & Landgraf, M. 2005 Microbiologia de Alimentos, Atheneu, São Paulo.

Guimarães, A.M., Alves, E.G.L., Figueiredo, H.C.P., Costa, G.M. & Rodrigues, L.S. 2003 Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop 5, 621-623; available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822003000500014

Henrique, C.M., Parisi, M.C.M. & Prati, P. 2014 Contaminação Bacteriológica Pós-colheita, 2014. Pesquisa & Tecnologia; available from: http://www.aptaregional.sp.gov.br/acesse-os-artigos-pesquisa-e-tecnologia/2014/janeiro-junho/1545-contaminacao-microbiologica-pos-colheita/file.html.

Jay, J.M. 2000 Modern Food Microbiology, Aspen Publishers, Maryland.

Nascimento, E.D. & Alencar F.L. de S. 2014 Antimicrobial and antiparasitic efficiency of

desinfectants in the sanitation of vegetables in natal city–RN. Ciência e Natura. 36, 93-

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2179460X12755

Nascimento, M.S., Silva, N. & Catanozi, M.P.L.M. 2003 Emprego de sanitizantes na desinfecção de vegetais. Revista Higiene Alimentar 12, 42–47.

Neres, A.C., Nascimento, A.H., Lemos, K.R.M., Ribeiro, E.L., Leitão V.L., Pacheco J.B.P. et al.

Enteroparasitos em amostras de alface (Lactuva sativa var. crispa), no município de

Anápolis, Goiás, Brasil. Biosci. J 27, 336-341.

Neves, D.P. 2005 Parasitologia Humana, Atheneu, São Paulo.

Oliver, J.C., Germano, J.L., & Veiga, S.M.O.M. 2012 Eficiência de sanificantes alternativos sobre frutos contaminados artificialmente com Escherichia coli. Revista da Universidade Vale do Rio Verde 10, 351-359 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5892/719

Quadros, R.M., Marques, S.M.T., Favaro, D.A., Pessoa, V.B., Arruda, A.A.R. & Santini, J. 2008 Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa) de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina. Revista Ciência e Saúde 1,78-84.

Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe, C., Griffin, P.M. & Swerdlow, D.L. 2005 Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982-2002. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11,

-609. doi:10.3201/eid1104.040739.

Robertson, L.J. & Gjerde, B.K. 2001 Ocurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway. J. Food Protection 64, 1793-1798.

Santos, H.S., Muratori, M.C.S., Marques, A.L.A., Alves, V.C., Cardoso Filho, F.C., Costa, A.P.R. et al. 2012 Avaliação da eficácia da água sanitária na sanitização de alfaces (Lactuca sativa). Rev Inst Adolfo Lutz 71, 56-60; available from: http://www.ufpi.br/subsiteFiles/cca/arquivos/files/1433_56-60_Hugo_Sousa_Santos.pdf

São Paulo - Centro de Vigilância Sanitária, Estado de São Paulo. Portaria CVS-6/99 10 de março de 1999, São Paulo; available from: http://www.cvs.saude.sp.gov.br/zip/E_PT-CVS-06_100399.pdf.

Seo, S. & Matthews, K.R. 2012 influence of the plant defense response to escherichia coli O157:H7 cell surface structures on survival of that enteric pathogen on plant surfaces. Appl Env Microbiol 78, 588-2889. doi:10.1128/AEM.01095-12

Silva, M.G. & Gontijo, E.E.L. 2012 Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Gurupi, Tocantins. Revista Científica do ITPAC 5, 4; available from: http://www.itpac.br/arquivos/Revista/54/6.pdf

Soares, B. &, Cantos, G.A. 2005 Qualidade parasitológica e condições higiênico-sanitárias de hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev Bras Epidemiol 8, 77-84. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2005000400006.

Soares, B. & Cantos, G.A. 2006 Detecção de estruturas parasitárias em hortaliças comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 42, 455-460; available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbcf/v42n3/a15v42n3.pdf.

Takayanagui OM, Oliveira CD, Bergamini AMM, Capuano DM, Okino MHT, Febrônio LHP et al. 2001 Fiscalização de verduras comercializadas no município de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 34, 37-41.

Zanoni, K. & Gelinski, J.M.L.N. 2013 Condições higiênico-sanitárias de salada de vegetais servidas em três restaurantes self-service em município do interior de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Revista Eletrônica de Farmácia 10, 30-42; available from: http://ww.revistas.ufg.br/index.php/REF/article/view/22023. doi:10.5216/ref.v10i3.22023.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under Creative Commons